Skim For Mac - 116 User Reviews 1.6.5

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4759 - 118 B.E. (Electronics) (Semester - I) ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND BUSINESS PLANNING. is a platform for academics to share research papers. Jan 05, 2011 Download Skim for Mac to read, annotate, highlight and mark up PDFs. Designed for scientific papers. Skim has had 3 updates within the past 6 months. Coconut oil (or coconut butter) is an edible oil derived from the wick, meat, and milk of the coconut palm fruit. Coconut oil is a white solid fat, melting at warmer room temperatures of around 25° C (78° F), in warmer climates during the summer months it is a clear thin liquid oil. Unrefined varieties have a distinct coconut aroma.

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Skim For Mac - 116 User Reviews 1.6.5 2

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Download Hi-Res ImageDownload to MS-PowerPointCite This:J. Agric. Food Chem. 1996, 44, 2, 594-598
    , , and
Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 226, Reading RG6 6AP, United Kingdom
  • Color,
  • Solution chemistry,
  • Absorption,
  • Atmospheric pressure,


Glucose−lysine solutions, initial pH 5.1, 6.5, 8.0, and 10.1, were incubated at temperatures in the range 40−60 °C under atmospheric pressure and 600 MPa. The rate of Maillard browning at 50 °C was shown to be retarded by pressure in solutions of initial pH 5.1 and 6.5 but significantly enhanced in solutions of initial pH 8.0 and 10.1, while the effect of pressure was negligible at pH 7.0−7.5. At pH 10.1 the activation energies for the two systems (high pressure and atmospheric pressure) were not significantly different. The rates of reaction of these systems carried out in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer, at 600 MPa and alkaline pH, were slower than expected. It is proposed that pressure-induced ionization of the carboxylate group on the lysine at low pH, or of the phosphate and bicarbonate groups at high pH, causes a decrease in pH and subsequent reduction in the rate of reaction. In systems in which the pH is unaffected by pressure, i.e., those buffered by the amino groups of lysine, pressure accelerates the rate of reaction. Preliminary HPLC and UV data suggest there is no difference between the chemical pathways followed with and without the application of elevated pressure.

Keywords: High pressure; Maillard browning; glucose; lysine; xylose; color

Skim For Mac - 116 User Reviews 1.6.5 X


Author to whom correspondence should be addressed (telephone +441734 318700; fax +441734 310080; e-mail [email protected]).

Abstract published in Advance ACS Abstracts, January 1, 1996.

This article is cited by 49 publications.

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